Sunday, 29 March 2015


The Internet of Things (IoT)  is a fast emerging network of IP-connected  devices and the communication (transfer of data) that occurs amid these devices without any human interface. IoT devices utilizes wireless sensor networks, control systems, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and the Internet to interact with external environment.

Kevin Ashton, cofounder and executive director of the Auto-ID Center at MIT, first mentioned the Internet of Things: "All the information available on internet was captured or created by human beings(by typing, pressing a record button, taking a digital picture or scanning a bar code) with limited accuracy and attention.Instead if we could use computers to track things then we could know when things needed replacing, repairing or recalling and whether they were fresh or past their best".

Examples that come under  Internet of Things consist of  thermostats, cars, electronic appliances, lights in household and commercial environments, alarm clocks, speaker systems, vending machines and more.Few other scenarios where IoT comes into picture are
  • Automobile with built in sensors to alert the driver in case of any concern.Its possible to detect when components like batteries will fail and replacement is needed.
  • Printers detects its low ink level and order for replacement.
  • Stock-out prevention through connected and intelligent supply chains.
  • A person with a heart monitor implant.

Objects that are part of IoT becomes connected to the surrounding objects and helps in creating creating a network of connections between secluded data sources.

Important thing here is the handing over of IP address for these IoT devices.According to Steve Leibson, who identifies himself as “occasional docent at the Computer History Museum,” the address space expansion means that we could “assign an IPV6 address to every atom on the surface of the earth, and still have enough addresses left to do another 100+ earths.”

SECURITY in the IoT:
As the number of IoT devices augments the security concerns for this also increases.Studies disclose that by 2020 there will be around 50 billion connected devices. Hackers can make use your data and can change your requirement.Consequently its needed that we look after the IoT devices against malware, spyware, worms, and trojans.

Monday, 23 February 2015


Oracle Flashback technology was introduced in Oracle 9i and added on to higher version. It provides a set of features using which we can view as well as recover data from Logical corruptions. Most of the Flashback technologies depend on the available UNDO data to retrieve older data.
Some of the Advantages of Flashback Technology are faster database point in time recovery and less performance overhead.Also we need to take care of the parameters that should be set for Flashback which are  given below:

·        DB_FLASHBACK_RETENTION_TARGET: Time limit for the deleted data to be retained

·        DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE: Size limit for the maximum data that can be retained.
Alter System Set DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE=536870912

·        DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST: Location where the data needs to be retained
Alter System Set DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST='/Source/File/’

Flashback technology gives six different ways to fix logical corruption.

a) Oracle Flashback Query:
The Flashback query feature is used to views set of row at a specified point of time in the past. This feature uses the UNDO data (stored based on the undo retention parameter) to view the historical data and reconstruct the data if it was lost accidentally.
Useful when you accidentally delete number of rows and commit the changes.

Select .. As Of SCN | Timestamp

AS OF TIMESTAMP (Mention The Timestamp Here)

SELECT * FROM Ftest  As Of SCN (Mention The SCN Here)

b) Oracle Flashback Version Query 
This features helps to view all the versions of all the rows that ever existted in one or more tables in between two points in time or system change numbers (SCN).This feature also depends on UNDO data.
Select .. Versions Between SCN | Timestamp And SCN | Timestamp
 Select Version_Xid,Dept_Id
From Dept
Version Between SCN (Referencing A Start And End SCN)

Select Version_Xid,Dept_Id
From Dept
Version Between TIMESTAMP (Referencing A Start And End Timestamp)

) Oracle Flashback Drop 
Flashback drop is used to restore tables and depended objects accidentally dropped. After restoring the table will be renamed as its original whereas the indexes will have system generated names.


Before doing flashback confirm that the dropped object has not been purged

Select OBJECT_NAME,ORIGINAL_NAME From User_Recyclebin;

d) Oracle Flashback Database 
This feature is used to recover the database from logical corruptions to specified point in time/scn. To flashback the database you must have the SYSDBA privilege.

Flashback Database To SCN  | Restore Point



We can also create a restore point and restore the database to the restore point.

e) Oracle Flashback Transaction Query
 Flashback Transaction query allows viewing changes made by single transaction or all transactions during a period of time .This feature is used during perform analysis, audit transactions to check data at transaction level.

Transaction Query Features uses the FLASHBACK_TRANSACTION_QUERY view for retrieving transaction information.

SELECT Logon_User, Operation, Start_Timestamp, Undo_Sql
FROM Flashback_Transaction_Query
WHERE Xid In (
SELECT  Versions_Xid
FROM  Emp BETWEEN TIMESTAMP (Systimestamp - Interval '6' Minute) AND Systimestamp);

f) Oracle Flashback Table
Flashback Table feature helps to recover table or set of tables to particular timestamp or SCN to reverse unwanted updates. 
To recover the table we need to set the below things.
  • Requires undo data.
  • Row movement must be enabled.
  • Must have SELECT, INSERT, DELETE, and ALTER privileges on the table
Flashback Table .. To Scn | Timestamp
Flashback Table Dept To Timestamp (Timestamp Value)

Read the most discussed topics of DATAWAREHOUSE CONCEPTS- TOP 10 TOPICS OF 2014

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